Tissue Train

Flexcell® Tissue Train® Culture System
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A computer-regulated bioreactor that allows users to create 3-dimensional cell-seeded gels and apply uniaxial tensile strains to these gels.

View videos on setting up the Flexcell® Tension System

  • 3-D culture in a gel matrix (see Fig. 1 below) with or without cyclic tension.
  • Build bioartificial tissue strips of skin, tendon, ligament, etc. up to 35 mm in length.
  • Observe responses of cells cultured in 3-D matrices with phase contrast, fluorescent, or scanning confocal microscopy.
  • Compatible with Windows 7.
Read more about Tissue Engineering with a Flexcell® Culture System

Tissue Train

Figure 1: Bioartificial tissue development with Collagel® and the Tissue Train® Culture System.

Tissue Train® System Videos

Creating a Bioartifical Construct with the Tissue Train® System
This video shows how to create a 3D collagen cell-seeded construct (or bioartifical tissue) with a linear Trough Loader™ and the Tissue Train® System. After the construct has polymerized, the Flexcell® Tension System can be used with an Arctangle® Loading Station™ to apply uniaxial strain to the construct.
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Tissue Train® Bioartificial Tissue Fabrication with Uniaxial Strain
A 3D collagen cell-seeded construct (or bioartifical tissue) is dispensed with a pipette into a linear mold created with the Trough Loader™ and Tissue Train® System. After the construct has polymerized, the Flexcell® Tension System can be used with an Arctangle® Loading Station™ to apply uniaxial strain to the construct.

Tension Test of a Bioartificial Tissue
A 3D cell-seeded collagen gel created with the Tissue Train® System is subjected to a tensile test until failure. Shown here is the construct within the test grips during testing.

Tissue Train® Trapezoidal Construct under Tension with Corresponding Finite Element Strain Values
Trapezoidal-shaped 3D cell-seeded gel construct (created with the Flexcell® Tissue Train® System) undergoing unconstrained tension applied with the FX-5000™ Tension System. The strain values, as determined with Finite Element Analysis, are depicted alongside the strained construct.

Relevant Tech Reports
Recent Publications with a Flexcell® Tissue Engineering Product

Applied stretch initiates directional invasion through the action of Rap1 GTPase as a tension sensor
Freeman SA, Christian S, Austin P, Iu I, Graves ML, Huang L, Tang S, Coombs D, Gold MR, Roskelley CD. J Cell Sci 130(1):152-163, 2017. doi: 10.1242/jcs.180612.

The myocardial regenerative potential of three-dimensional engineered cardiac tissues composed of multiple human iPS cell-derived cardiovascular cell lineages
Masumoto H, Nakane T, Tinney JP, Yuan F, Ye F, Kowalski WJ, Minakata K, Sakata R, Yamashita JK, Keller BB. Sci Rep 6:29933, 2016. doi: 10.1038/srep29933.

Duration and magnitude of myofascial release in 3-dimensional bioengineered tendons: effects on wound healing
Cao TV, Hicks MR, Zein-Hammoud M, Standley PR. Osteopath Assoc 115(2):72-82, 2015. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2015.018.

Effects of physiologic mechanical stimulation on embryonic chick cardiomyocytes using a microfluidic cardiac cell culture model
Nguyen MD, Tinney JP, Ye F, Elnakib AA, Yuan F, El-Baz A, Sethu P, Keller BB, Giridharan GA. Anal Chem 87(4):2107-13, 2015. doi: 10.1021/ac503716z. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Mechanical stress promotes maturation of human myocardium from pluripotent stem cell-derived progenitors
Ruan JL, Tulloch NL, Saiget M, Paige SL, Razumova MV, Regnier M, Tung KC, Keller G, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Murry CE. Stem Cells 33(7):2148-57, 2015. doi: 10.1002/stem.2036. Epub 2015 May 11.

Effects of intermittent and incremental cyclic stretch on ERK signaling and collagen production in engineered tissue
Schmidt JB, Chen K, Tranquillo RT. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering 1-10, 2015. doi:10.1007/s12195-015-0415-6.

Mechanical stretch assays in cell culture systems
Tondon A, Haase C, Kaunas R. In: Handbook of Imaging in Biological Mechanics, ed. Neu CP, Genin GM. CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2015.

Degree of scaffold degradation influences collagen (re)orientation in engineered tissues
de Jonge N, Foolen J, Brugmans MC, Söntjens SH, Baaijens FP, Bouten CV. Tissue Eng Part A 20(11-12):1747-57, 2014. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0517.

Cyclic mechanical strain induces TGFβ1-signalling in dermal fibroblasts embedded in a 3D collagen lattice
Peters AS, Brunner G, Krieg T, Eckes B. Arch Dermatol Res 2014 Oct 28.

Combined biophysical and soluble factor modulation induces cardiomyocyte differentiation from human muscle derived stem cells
Tchao J, Han L, Lin B, Yang L, Tobita K. Sci Rep 4:6614, 2014. doi: 10.1038/srep06614.

Application of polarization-sensitive OCT and Doppler OCT in tissue engineering
Yang Y, Wimpenny I, Wang RK. In: Optical Techniques in Regnerative Medicine, edited by Morgan SP, Rose F, Matcher SJ. Taylor & Francis Group: Florida, p. 307-327, 2014.

Matrix rigidity activates Wnt signaling through down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 protein
Barbolina MV, Liu Y, Gurler H, Kim M, Kajdacsy-Balla AA, Rooper L, Shepard J, Weiss M, Shea LD, Penzes P, Ravosa MJ, Stack MS. J Biol Chem 288(1):141-51, 2013. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.431411.

Dosed myofascial release in three-dimensional bioengineered tendons: effects on human fibroblast hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and cytokine secretion
Cao TV, Hicks MR, Campbell D, Standley PR. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 36(8):513-21, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2013.07.004.

Ablation of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C accelerates contractile kinetics in engineered cardiac tissue
de Lange WJ, Grimes AC, Hegge LF, Ralphe JC. J Gen Physiol 141(1):73-84, 2013. doi: 10.1085/jgp.201210837.

Cyclical strain modulates metalloprotease and matrix gene expression in human tenocytes via activation of TGFβ
Jones ER, Jones GC, Legerlotz K, Riley GP. Biochim Biophys Acta 1833(12):2596-2607, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.06.019.

Engineered human muscle tissue from skeletal muscle derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac cells
Tchao J, Kim JJ, Lin B, Salama G, Lo CW, Yang L, Tobita K. International Journal of Tissue Engineering 2013 Article ID 198762, 15 pages, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/198762.

Combating adaptation to cyclic stretching by prolonging activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Weinbaum JS, Schmidt JB, Tranquillo RT. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering 6 (3):279-286, 2013.

Enhancement of tenogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells by tendon-derived extracellular matrix
Yang G, Rothrauff BB, Lin H, Gottardi R, Alexander PG, Tuan RS. Biomaterials 34(37):9295-306, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.08.054.

Gene expression profiles in engineered cardiac tissues respond to mechanical loading and inhibition of tyrosine kinases
Ye F, Yuan F, Li X, Cooper N, Tinney JP, Keller BB. Physiol Rep 1(5):e00078, 2013. doi: 10.1002/phy2.78.

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